Fast charging has given us some kind of relief, from the regular charging, thus giving us more time with our phone. So, today we are going to take a look at it in a little more detail. The detail is of various types of fast charging so that you can identify yourself, what type of fast charging your charger is supplying.
BASICS OF CHARGING
Charging in the phone is controlled by a component called power controller. It is the responsibility of this power controller and the phone charger, that the phone is charged fast. The power controller is the component that decides and allows how much power will pass through it. And the charger is obviously the thing that supplies power or current.
Suppose the controller allows some specific amount of charge through it. If the charger has a higher supply rate then it won’t make any difference, because the controller simply won’t allow it. But on the hand, if the charger has a lower supply rate then it will take more time to charge as it is not using the full capacity of charge.
An article on Lifehacker has explained this thing in a very relatable example. The example is using the Bouncers at the gate of a bar as the power controller and number of people as power or can say current. I am quoting it below.
“You can think of this a bit like a bouncer at a bar. The bar has a capacity of fifty people and the bouncer lets in one person every three minutes. The bar will be at capacity in about two and a half hours. Regardless of how many people are waiting outside, the bouncer won’t let more than one person every three minutes in, so it can’t ever fill up faster than that. However, if fewer than fifty people show up in two and a half hours, it will take longer for the bar to fill up. You can’t ever decrease the minimum amount of time it takes to fill the bar, but you can increase it if the initial input is too low.”
A LITTLE ABOUT FAST CHARGING
Now, how fast charging works? The answer is simple is that the controllers allow more charge to come in and reach the battery. One thing is to note that except the Super VOOC charging (will discuss in later part of the article), no charger charge the battery full at the maximum speed. Fast chargers charge the battery in the range of 50-80% at full speed (50-80% under various fast charging techniques). Rest of the battery charges at normal speeds.
Quick Charging actually chargers work at different voltage and ampere or Wattage levels, depending on the charge that the battery can accept. So, the battery won’t just charge at the same charge all the time, it will shift from different to different charges.
Earlier the battery is empty so it will charge fast and then when the battery is filling with charge it will make the battery charge slow.
The other thing to know is that charger talking about Volts, Amperes, and Power. Power (W) = Volts (V) X Ampere (A). More the power supplied by the charger, faster is the charging speed. Any charger with output more than 10 W (means 5V 2A) is considered today as fast charger.
VARIOUS TYPES OF FAST CHARGING
One thing to know to understand it better is that all the names we are going to discuss like Quick Charge, Turbo Charge, Dash Charge etc are the licensed trademarks of the various companies. Fast charging is a general term just meaning that the battery is charging at a faster speed than normal. All these trademark names are a type of fast charging and fast charging is a general term or phenomenon.
Also, some of the fast charging like the turbo or else is a type of Qualcomm Quick Charge and is licensed by Qualcomm to these brands.
So, let’s get into it.
1. Qualcomm Quick Charge:
This is the most widely used type of fast charging. As in the name, it is developed by Qualcomm and is the trademark name of Qualcomm. It is not just one, it is developed over time and has various types.
a) Quick Charge 1.0: This was the first stage and came in the market in 2003. Chargers with this standard will have a power supply of 10W that is 5V 2A. Yeah! this is the one I told you above is not considered as fast charging anymore. But Samsung uses this as Adaptive fast charging for micro USB devices.
b) Quick Charge 2.0: This standard has a maximum output of 18 W. Charger output will be 5V 3A, 9V 2A, 12 V 1.67A. If the charger has any one of these output ratings, it will be Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0 certified charger. Since these chargers also have to backward compatible, so the chargers will have the output of the previous generations. So say if a charger is Qualcomm Quick Charger 2.0 certified charger will also have 5V 2A output.
So actual Qualcomm Quick Chargers 2.0 will have the output in the range of 5V 2A, 9V 2A, 12 V 1.67A.
c) Quick Charge 3.0: This charging have more levels of output, means the change will not sudden but will be more gradual with a change of 0.2 V. So the charging will be more uniform and close to what is actually required by the battery. The maximum power is still 18 W but what’s new is the gradual change. The range is 3.6 to 12 V for phones and 3.6 to 20 V for others, the maximum current is 3 A to 1.5 A for phones.
The chargers supporting this standard will have variable voltage like this 3.6-6.5 V 3A, 6.5-9V 2A, 9V-12 1.5A.
d) Quick Charge 4.0 and 4.0+: The chargers of this standard are not out yet but the standard is there. The Quick charge has a maximum power output of 28 W while that of 4.0+ is 27 W. These standards also have the gradual change feature. I was not able to find the actual rating of 4.0 so mentioning those of the 4.0+.
This standard uses 5V with 4.7-5.6A and 9V at 3A vis USB PD. PD means Power Delivery and it only works over USB Type-C to USB Type- C cable, and can transfer power up to 100W.
Check the list of all devices compatible with Qualcomm Quick Charge.
2. MediaTek Pump Express:
This one hasn’t been popular nor have seen any OEM, having MediaTek processor in their phone, marketing it. So let’s discuss it briefly.
Pump Express+ and Pump Express 2.0 are the older standards. These also focus on varying voltage to increase charging speed with the current up to 3A or 4.5A. The Pump Express+ uses fixed intervals of 5V, 7V, 9V, and 12V while Pump Express 2.0 has a wider range between 5V and 20V.
Pump Express 3.0 supports USB-C PD and varies the voltage in a narrower range, between 3V to 6V, with the current flowing at 5A. It also supports USB PD.
The newest Pump Express 4.0 standard supports 5A of current as well as USB Power Delivery 3.0 with greater efficiency and better heat management. It works with any smartphone containing a MediaTek Helio P60 chipset.
3. Turbo Charging
Turbo Charging is the Motorola’s name to it. The charger is 15 W charger similar to the Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0. 15W supplies power at 5V 3A, 9V 1.67A, and 12V 1.2A.
4. Adaptive Fast Charging
This is the term that Samsung uses. Adaptive is for the obvious reason that it allows charge according to the requirement of the battery, which is for all fast charges.
This fast charging is for two types of ports micro USB and USB Type-C. For micro USB it uses the Qualcomm Quick Charge 1.0 standard that is 5V at 2A.
For USB Type-C it uses 5V 3A or 9V at 2A, which is nothing but Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0. This one is also compatible with USB PD.
5. Super VOOC and VOOC charging
These charging standards are registered by OPPO. This is one of the fastest types of charging you can get in a phone. This works at 5V and 4A giving 20 W of power. This is the VOOC charging. The Super VOOC charging which transfers power, maximum at 50 W and can charge a phone 0-100% in 35 minutes.
6. Dash Charging
Dash charging is the name marketed by OnePlus. It is the same VOOC charging which OPPO has licensed to OnePlus. 5V with 4A giving 20 W of power.
7. Super Charging
It is the name of fast charging by Huawei. This also works by varying voltage and amperage. With compatible adapters and cables, you’re able to get an output of 5V/1A (5W), 5V/2A (10W), 9V/2A (18W), or 4.5V/5A (22.5W). You can charge to 58 percent in 30 minutes on compatible devices. huawei is also testing a 40 W charger, that is 10V with 4A output that can charge 0-90% in 30 minutes.
8. Anker Power IQ
Anker is a brand of Wall AC chargers and Power banks. So it doesn’t come into phones but come in chargers. The chargers communicate with phone and provide the required power like other chargers. This is similar to Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0.
The ratings at which the charger work at are 5V/1A, 5V/2.4A, 5V/2A, 9V/2A, and 12V/1.5A, with varying voltage. Power IQ 1.0 has a maximum output of 12W and Power IQ 2.0 has a maximum output of 18W.
9. Wireless Charging
Wireless charging was quite slow but has now been stepped up to fast wireless charging. It depends upon the adapter which supplies the power to the charging pad and the phone should also have fast charging.
The fast wireless charger should also have fans to dissipate the heat. The old wireless charger has the output rating of 5V 1A, which charged a phone like Samsung Galaxy S7 from 9-100% in 5 hours. But the fast Wireless charging has reduced the time this time to only 2 hours.
Now you are aware of the fast charging standards that are available in the market for the phones. So if you want to check if your phone supports any kind of fast charging, the first thing you should check is the phone company’s website. There only you will get the correct information. If the compatible charger is provided in the box of the phone, then it swelled and good. But if not, the now you know what to look for in a new charger.
I am mad about gadgets especially smartphones. I like to help people deciding their phone. I love talking about gadgets and also share whatever I know about them.